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Scientific Research

Explore these independent scientific papers to learn more about how iX Cameras are contributing to scientific research in universities and corporations worldwide.
Author: S Chen, Q Dai, X Yang, J Liu, W Huang… - ACS Applied Materials
Abstract:
In this work, a design concept of bioinspired functional surfaces is proposed for lubricant control at surfaces and interfaces subjected to external thermal gradients. Inspired by the conical structures of cactus and the motion configuration of Centipedes, a bioinspired surface of wedged-groove with an oriented capillary pattern is constructed. The effect of geometrical parameters on the directional lubricant manipulation capacity and sliding anisotropy is discussed. It is found that by regulating the orientation of the capillary pattern, a controllable lubricant self-transport capacity can be achieved for varying conditions from surfaces to interfaces, with or without thermal gradients. The lubricant self-transport process is captured, and the mechanism is revealed. The design philosophy of the proposed bioinspired functional surface is believed to have potential applications for lubricant control in modern machinery and complex liquid control in lab-on-a-chip and microfluidics devices.
Author: H Wang, Y Liang, D Li, R Chen, X Yan… - Separation and Purification
Abstract:
The collisional interaction process between bubbles and particles is considered to play an important role in flotation. This paper aims to investigate the effect of particle hydrophobicity on the bubble-particle collision and subsequent interaction process. Four types of bubble-particle interaction behaviors were observed, namely the non-collision, the collision but without attachment, the attachment with jump-in after collision, and the attachment without jump-in after collision. The ‘jump-in’ event was interpreted as the rupture of the water film, providing the formation and growth of a ‘three-phase contact line’ (TPCL). The mildly hydrophobic particle could attach to the bubble surface without the rupture of the water film, whereas the highly hydrophobic particle had the higher collision and attachment probability. The significant effect of particle hydrophobicity was found in the observed particle trajectories and velocities. The distance between the bubble and the particle of weakly hydrophobicity and mildly hydrophobicity remained almost constant in the particle sliding process on the bubble surface. However, the highly hydrophobic particle was observed to jump in instantaneously after a short interaction time. Influenced by hydrodynamic drag, the maximum sliding velocity of any particles near the bubble’s equatorial plane was higher than the particle terminal velocity, and highly hydrophobic particle had a higher difference. The analysis of the individual force components of particle provides valuable insights into the kinematic properties of particle as it slides. The hydrodynamic drag coefficient decreased with an increase in the particle contact angle, implying the highly hydrophobic particle had a smaller hydrodynamic drag. Additionally, the reaction force was introduced for the first time to satisfy the radial force balance relationship, and explanations were proposed in terms of its source.
Author: R Zhao, M Yu, Z Sun, L Li, X Guo, Y Xu, X Wu - Department of Applied Chemistry
Abstract:
Droplet rebound from hydrophobic leaves is a major factor influencing pesticide utilization. The use of a surfactant is a major strategy to reduce droplet rebound, promoting pesticide deposition on hydrophobic agricultural plant leaves. However, most surfactants known to regulate droplet rebound are either anionic or cationic. In this study, ethoxylated propoxylated 2-ethyl-1-haxanol (EH 6) was identified as a nonionic surfactant that inhibits droplet rebound while promoting the complete spreading of the droplet on hydrophobic leaves. Compared with the widely reported nonionic surfactant Tween 20, EH 6 performs better at concentrations above 0.3%. This phenomenon can be attributed to the rapid migration of EH 6 from the bulk to the newly generated interface, significantly reducing the surface tension. We introduce a simple and effective strategy that can be used to enhance droplet deposition on hydrophobic plant surfaces, which may offer future economic and environmental benefits.
Author: X Liu, Y Guo, W Zhang, D Wu, R Huang, M Yang… - Journal of Materials
Abstract:
This study used a nickel-based filler metal to fabricate a surfacing layer on a low-carbon steel substrate by a hybrid welding process with a rotating laser and arc. The surfacing layer's weld formation was studied using optical microscopic observation (OM). The microstructure of the layers was studied by using the scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The arc, metal transfer, molten pool flow behaviors, and U–I characteristics during hybrid laser arc welding (HLAW) were analyzed using the arc analyzer and high-speed camera. The results show that a rotating laser improves the weld formation of gas metal arc welding (GMAW). The microstructure of the two surfacing layers consists of dendritic γ phase and a small amount of Laves and NbC phases. The high dilution rate of the HLAW surfacing layer results in relatively more Laves and fewer NbC phases. The arc length of HLAW is dynamically deflected with the rotation of the laser, which expands the arc action and heating area of the molten pool. The droplet transfer mode changed from globular transfer dominant in GMAW to the projected transfer dominant in HLAW. The location where the droplet transfer into the molten pool is dynamic changed, forming a multi-point impact on the molten pool. Combined with the deflected arc with the laser rotating laser, the HLAW has a broad and deep molten pool. Understanding the metal transfer behavior of Ni-based alloys in rotating laser-induced arc hybrid surfacing is of great significance for improving surfacing forming.
Author: Y Hu, Q Dai, W Huang, X Wang
Abstract:
The unsteady powder mass flowrate of the available feeding systems and the bad control of the areas being eroded have been often noticed in the abrasive air jet machining process. In addition to the delivery of dry powder, the powder can be evenly mixed with liquid to form a slurry, and then sent to the mixing chamber of an air jet machine; i.e., multiphase jet machining (MJM) was proposed in this paper. The method whereby using the viscous water to suspend the abrasives was found to enhance the stability of powder mass flowrate, thereby decreasing the fluctuation in the machining depth. Whereafter, five types of liquid-based slurries were prepared and their effects on the jet erosion zone were investigated. It was found that the control of the erosion zone was improved to varying degrees when the abrasives were transported into the air jet by viscous liquid as the carrier fluid due to the two roles: reducing the occurrence of third and/or second particle impacts; inducing a viscous boundary layer that could reduce the negative effect of the divergence of jet beam and particle rebounding. In particular, the use of an oil-based slurry could completely eliminate the unwanted frosted zone around the machined features. CFD simulations were used to understand the mechanisms causing these effects. Overall, it is shown that the abrasive air jets can be designed to have a good resolution, so it is feasible to mill or polish surface without the need for a mask to define the edges.
Author: Y Jiao, S Li, S Ding, D Yang, C Bai, J Liu, Y Luo, G Li
Abstract:
Direct writing technology is a promising approach for the preparation of reactive materials. The polymer binder provides a mechanically stable, processable and shapeable energetic structure for composites. Herein, Direct-writing energetic inks consisting of nitrocellulose (NC) and VitonF2311 as well as nanothermite were developed. Firstly, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to analyze the intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the hybrid polymers, and the stability of the network structure was characterized by rheometer, and the mechanical properties of binders were also tested. The results show the best binder formulation is 20 wt% NC and 80 wt% F2311. The elongation at break of the binder is 600.94%, and the elastic modulus is 8.29 MPa. NC provides high tensile strength for the hybrid binder; F2311 provides high fracture tensile rate for the hybrid binder, and as a high-energy initiator, pre-ignition reaction occurs when the temperature reaches 350 °C. Then the as-prepared inks not only has excellent rheological properties so that it can be loaded with 90 wt% nanothermite, but also possess a homodisperse for components and good combustion performance. The average flame temperature is about 2400 K at atmospheric pressure.
Author: H Zhang, L Zhang, C An, Y Zhang, F Shao, Y Gao
Abstract:
Current techniques for the generation of cell-laden microgels are limited by numerous challenges, including poorly uncontrolled batch-to-batch variations, processes that are both labor- and time-consuming, the high expense of devices and reagents, and low production rates; this hampers the translation of laboratory findings to clinical applications. To address these challenges, we develop a droplet-based microfluidic strategy based on metastable droplet-templating and microchannel integration for the substantial large-scale production of single cell-laden alginate microgels. Specifically, we present a continuous processing method for microgel generation by introducing amphiphilic perfluoronated alcohols to obtain metastable emulsion droplets as sacrificial templates. In addition, to adapt to the metastable emulsion system, integrated microfluidic chips containing 80 drop-maker units are designed and optimized based on the computational fluid dynamics simulation. This strategy allows single cell encapsulation in microgels at a maximum production rate of 10 ml hr-1 of cell suspension while retaining cell viability and functionality. These results represent a significant advance toward using cell-laden microgels for clinical-relevant applications, including cell therapy, tissue regeneration and 3D bioprinting.
Author: M Song, Z Liu, Y Ma, Z Dong, Y Wang, L Jiang
Abstract:
Surfaces designed to reduce the contact time of impacting droplets are potentially of great importance for fundamental science and technological applications, for example, anti-icing, self-cleaning and heating transfer applications. Previous studies have shown that the contact time can be reduced via introducing one or several crossing macroscale wires on superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs). However, the impacts that strike far from the wires (off-center impacts) have contact times that are equal to those obtained on SHSs. Here we demonstrate that this problem can be largely solved by using macro anisotropic SHSs (macro-aniso-SHSs)—in which the wires are parallel and macroscaled. The droplet contact time depends on the spacing between the macrostripes and is remarkably reduced by 40–50% when the spacing is comparable to the droplet size. Obvious differences in the contact time are not observed for impacts that are centered on the stripe and in the groove. The impacts centered in the groove produce new hydrodynamics that are characterized by extended spreading, easy break up and bouncing in a flying-eagle configuration. The study discusses the underlying mechanisms of the impact processes. Moreover, the effect of parallel wires on the contact time is discussed by comparing the droplet impact data for grooved rice leaves and non-grooved cabbage leaves. The enhanced drop mobility associated with the macro-aniso-SHSs should be very useful in many industrial applications.
Author: D Zhang, J Yang, LY Chi
Abstract:
Interface debonding between fiber reinforced polymers (FPR) and substrates is the principal failure mode for FRP-reinforced structure. To understand the bond–slip relationship at FRP-to-brick interfaces under dynamic loading, the influences of the dynamic enhancement of material performance on the bond–slip curve were studied. Single-lap shear tests under two different loading rates were performed, and the slip distribution curves at different loading stages were fitted to derive the bond–slip relationship. Then a numerical model considering the strain rate effects on materials was built and verified with test results. Further, the influences of brick strength, FRP stiffness and slip rate on the bond–slip relationship were investigated numerically. The research results show that FRP stiffness mainly influences the shape of the bond–slip curve, while brick strength mainly influences the amplitude of the bond–slip curve. The variations of the bond–slip relationship under dynamic loading, i.e., under different slip rates, are mainly caused by the dynamic enhancement of brick strength, and also by the dynamic enhancement of FRP stiffness, especially within a specific slip rate range. The proposed empirical formula considering dynamic FRP stiffness and dynamic brick strength can be used to predict the bond–slip relationship at the FRP-to-brick interface under dynamic loading
Author: X Gao, B Sun, B Gu - Aerospace Science and Technology
Abstract:
This paper reports the damage mechanisms of 3-D carbon fiber/epoxy braided composite under multiple impact compressions along out-plane direction. The multiple compression tests were conducted on a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) apparatus. The compressive deformations and damages were photographed with high speed camera and compared with those from finite element analyses (FEA). We found that the initial compressive damages are fiber/resin interface damage and resin fragmentation. Then the braided preform was in a severe shear damage which accompanied with further damages of interface and resin under the followed impact compressions. The energy absorptions by the reinforcement and epoxy resin at the multiple impacts were decomposed. The braided composite has the highest energy absorption capability at the first impact. The yarn orientation in braided preform leads to non-uniform stress and strain distribution. This non-uniformity easily induced the local damage and furthermore the catastrophic failure under the multiple compressions.
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