Dynamic formation characteristics and mechanism of hybrid laser arc welding surface layer by Ni-based filler metal based on rotating laser induction
X Liu, Y Guo, W Zhang, D Wu, R Huang, M Yang… - Journal of Materials
This study used a nickel-based filler metal to fabricate a surfacing layer on a low-carbon steel substrate by a hybrid welding process with a rotating laser and arc. The surfacing layer's weld formation was studied using optical microscopic observation (OM). The microstructure of the layers was studied by using the scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The arc, metal transfer, molten pool flow behaviors, and U–I characteristics during hybrid laser arc welding (HLAW) were analyzed using the arc analyzer and high-speed camera. The results show that a rotating laser improves the weld formation of gas metal arc welding (GMAW). The microstructure of the two surfacing layers consists of dendritic γ phase and a small amount of Laves and NbC phases. The high dilution rate of the HLAW surfacing layer results in relatively more Laves and fewer NbC phases. The arc length of HLAW is dynamically deflected with the rotation of the laser, which expands the arc action and heating area of the molten pool. The droplet transfer mode changed from globular transfer dominant in GMAW to the projected transfer dominant in HLAW. The location where the droplet transfer into the molten pool is dynamic changed, forming a multi-point impact on the molten pool. Combined with the deflected arc with the laser rotating laser, the HLAW has a broad and deep molten pool. Understanding the metal transfer behavior of Ni-based alloys in rotating laser-induced arc hybrid surfacing is of great significance for improving surfacing forming.